Public Information
List of Scheduled Tribes in Tamilnadu
The Adiyan origin comprises of myth and it seems to be indicative of the fact that the tribal people were the original inhabitants who were acculturated into the Adiyan tradition by two young "Missionaries". The Aryan influence accounts for the ubiquitous application of the sastra mumbled or recited at all the rituals. This community is distributed in the Wayanad district and the adjoining areas of Kanur district and Kodagu in Karnataka concentration is in the Thirunelly , Thrissileri and Vemam village of Mananthavady taluk (Kerala). In addition Adiyan Community also found in Tamil Nadu. They have their own dialect called "Adiyabhasha"

The Aranadan found in the Nilambur forests in the Ernad Taluk, Malappuram district and Ernad taluk of the Malabar district of the "Composite" Madras state, before the states of the union of India were reorganized in 1956. Their speech shows feathers of the northern dialect of Tamil Malayalam Telugu and of Kannada.

They live in the Anaimalai hills spread over the Pollachi and Udumalpet taluks of Coimbatore district. They appear to be a primitive tribe, like other aboriginal tribes of Tamil Nadu. Among themselves, they speak a "poor dialect" of Tamil but they are bilingual in Malayalam, which the use for communication with others.

The Irular are the second largest Scheduled Tribe of Tamil Nadu. The name Irula is derived from Tamil word irul meaning darkness or night. Another common name for the Irula of Chennai MGR,South Arcot, Salem, North Arcot Ambedkar, Dharmapuri, Tiruchchirappali and Thanjavur. The Irular speak a Tamil dialect whereas the other groups speak different dialects of the Irula language.

The origin of Kadar are vague some say that the kadar are the Negritos revelling a fusion of several races. The word Kadar means Residents in forest Kadar is plural form of Kadar, so they are the sons of soils of Tamilnadu which they call themselves Kadar, others call them Kadir and Kadan. The Kadars are original inhabitants of Anaimalai and resided in the forests next to Tops lip they were to be found in the Anaimali hills of pollachi Taluk in Coimbatore district with the exception of a few who had migrated to Salem and Thirunelveli Districts in 1961. Anaimalai hills which lie partly in the present Tamilnadu and partly in Kerala. They have their own dialect called as a kada dialect without script. And the Kadar speaks Tamil and Malayalam also.

The Kammaras are the blacksmith section of the Telugu Kama salas, whose services are the great demand by the cultivator, whose agricultural implements have to be made, and constantly repaired. It is noted, in the Bellary Gazetter, that "until recently the manufacture of the huge shallow iron pans, in which the sugar-cane is boiled, was a considerable industry at Kamalapuram. The iron was brought by pack bullocks from Jambunath Konda, the dome-shaped hill at the Hospet end of the Sandur range, and was smelted and worked by men of the Kammara. Of late years, the cheaper English iron has completely ousted the country product, the smelting industry is dead and the Kammars confine themselves to making and mending the boilers with English material. They have a temple of their own, dedicated to Kali, in the village where the worship is conducted by one of them. Their name Baita Kammara, meaning outside blacksmith, is applied to Kamsala blacksmiths, who occupy lowly position, and work in the open air or outside a village.

The kanikaran inhabit many parts of Kannniyakumari district and the Shencottah Taluk of Tirunelveli district. Kanikaran settlements are found generally where the thamaraparani, kotheyar and Masipatti Rivers emerge into the plains from the forest. The present habitat of the kanikaran is easily accessible because of the development of such villages as Pechiparai, Peruncheni and Papanasam and migrated to Kerala. They traditional history they had migrated from the Tirunelveli district to their present habitats. Their language is a ladder between Malayalam and Tamil, with features of both.

The word Kaniyan has been derived from the word kaniya meaning 'foresight' The Kaniyan belief that they were original inhabitants of Travangore region, most Kaniyan were in the foothills of the mountains of the North East part of the Kanniyakumari District, an adjacent to the towns of Nagercoil, Kuzhithurai and Padnamanabhapuram, but some are also distributed in Tirunelveli and Coimbatore Districts. The Kaniyan speak Malayalam, with in the family and with kin groups, they use Malayalam script, with outsiders they speak Tamil and few knew to write in Tamil. At present their children study in Tamil medium schools.

The Kattu Naickan get their name the words kadu, which means 'forest' and nayakan which means 'leader' or 'chief'. They are also known as kattu Naickan. They are the aboriginal inhabitants of the Western Ghats and are mainly found in the Nilgiris, in Tamil Nadu. They are believed to be the descendants of the Hidamasura of the Mahabharata epic. They are the aboriginal inhabitants of the Western Ghats and are mainly found in the Nilgiris, in Tamil Nadu and the Nilambur and Wynad hills, adjoining Kerala. The Kattu Naickan, speak their own dialect, which is close to Kannada, within the family and with their kin group. They speak Tamil and Malayalam with others. They use the Tamil script.

The community has several myths of origin, according to one of which they were descendants of the ancestors of the famous god Ayyappan of Sabarimali. Another describes them as the offspring of a human figure who came out of a mud elephant made by Parvati and trampled upon by Siva. Yet another says that they were crates by Siva to help Panchali while in exile to wash her clothes while in pollution. They are mainly distributed in the Ranny forest range of the Pathanmthitta Taluk and in the adjoining areas of Kottayam and Idukki districts. The use the Malayalam language for all purposes and use the Malayalam script.

The Konda Kapus, otherwise known as Konda Doras, inhabit largely the hill slopes and the low lands adjoining the in the Agency portions of the Vizagapatam district. They are the agrestic slaves of the Bagatas. The Konda Kapus speak Telugu Nothing regarding their original tongue is now known.

This community claim to have migrated to present day Tamil Nadu from Andra Pradesh long ago. They are found also in the adjoining districts in the Nizam's dominions. This community speak Telugu dialect within their community.

The etymological meaning of the work Korga is uncertain and considered it to be a corruption of 'Kurawar' meaning hill men. The word is derived from their profession. The originally found in South Karnataka and Bellary districts migrated to Tamil Nadu. They live in the out skirts of villages. The Koraga speak Tulu or Kannada with others and Koraga their own language. Koraga is an independent language of the Dravidian family.

14. KOTA:
The Kota is the Scheduled Tribe of Tamil Nadu. According to the 1961 Census, their total population was 1112 distributed in seven villages of the Nilgiris district, while the 2011 Census shows it to be 3110, indicating a low population growth. They were created from drops of God's (kambatraya). Their separation took place when God once asked them what they wanted. The Kota speaks Kota, a Dravidian language among themselves and Tamil with others.

The Kudiyas are short in stature, generally fair in complexion. They live on the Western Ghats bordering Mysore and its nearby areas. These people living on hill tops were called as 'Kudiya'. They have returned also from Kerala. The Kudiyas speak Tulu. Two-Third of Kudiyas are illiterate people.

The Kurichchan has migrated to its present habitat, i.e. Dharamapuri District, from Alambadi forest area in the Kollegal taluk of the present Musore District. Their traditional deity, Muttapa or Rangappa, finding himself uncomfortable in the Musore region, took up a new abode, they narrate. And add that a few Kurichchans followed him till they reached the baramahal tract in Dharmapuri and Hosur regions of Tamil country, where they settled as hunters. According to another kurichchan version, they migrated from the Ponnachin hills of the Musore-Malabar region to the Dharmapuri hills during the Maratha-Musore wars. Historically, this was probably around 1688-89 A.D. Even now, a few Kurichchans remember, in their oral tradition, the rule of Abdul Nabi Khan, Nawab of Cuddapah, who extended his prossessions southwards and by 1714 A.D. made himself ruler of the Baramahal area of Dharmapuri, Hosur and Krishnagiri. The Kurichchan speak Kannada, among themselves and Tamil with others. They use the Tamil and Kannada scripts. Some Kurichchan are conversant in Telugu and Urdu.

The KURUMBA or KURUMBAS are found in southern past of India in the states of Tamil nadu and Kerala. The Kurumbas are descendants of ancient Pallavas who were scattered over Nilgiris, Wayanad and Mysore, after a Chola onslaught in about 7th or 8th century A.D. The kurumbas in Nilgiris district are divided into five sub-groups. They are Alu Kurumbas, Betta Kurumbas, Jenu Kurumbas, Mullu Kurumbas and Urali Kurumbas. Alu Kurumbas are exclusively living in the taluks of coonoor, Kotagiri and kundah; Betta kurumbas are living along with Jenu kurumbas in the taluk of Gudalur whereas Mullu kurumbas and urali kurumbas are living exclusively in pandalur taluk. Only those living in the Nilgiri district of Tamil nadu are included in the list of the Scheduled Tribes.

It is believed that they might have migrated from Karnataka long ago. Most of them live in Dharmapuri district. They speak kannada dialect within their community. They converse inn tamil with others.

The Maha Malasar are identified as a small tribal community at the local level in Tamil nadu and are found only in the Pollachi and udumalpet taluks of Coimbatore District. Most of them live in the Indira Gandhi wild Life sanctuary in pollachi taluk. The maha Malasar believe that they were the original inhabitants of Kongu Nadu, which is the Present Coimbatore District. The Maha Malasar inhabits the densely forested hilly terrain of the Western Ghats. The Maha Malasar has their own district dialect, which is related to Malayalam.

The Malai Arayan as a Scheduled Tribe Mainly found in the Meenachi and Chenganasaree taluks of the Kottayam district Kerala. Though the Mala Arayan and the Mala Arayan are listed a two different classified as different classified as different communities are usually called as one of the same community of mala Arayan. The Mala Arayan families living in the interior settlement used to build tree houses on top of tall trees. They used to speak a district dialect of their own which was unintelligible to other malayalis in the past. But now they have adopted the Regional dialect of their locality.

The Mala pandaram is a scheduled tribe found manily in Achancoil, Pathnapuram, Naduvathumoozly, Mannarappara of the Pathanamthitta and leolleam district of Kerala. According to them, they come to the erstwhile Travancore state from the Madurai and thirunelveli district of tamilnadu. They speak a Poor dialect with many Tamil and Malayalam words and phrases.

Accordng to Malai vedan they were migrated to their present habitat from Idukki District of Kerala state during the time of Marthanda Varma, a ruler of Travancore. But there is no ethnographic and historical evidence are available to support the claim of migration. They call themselves as Malai vedar, while others refer them as Malai kani, Karungali Makkal and Malai Velan.Presently the Malai vedan found in the Mothiramalai region of Kalkulam Taluk. The Malai Vedan speak Malayalam among themselves and Tamil with others their peculiar slang of Malayalam locally Known as Vedan pashai, because the local people who knew Malayalam cannot follow Malai Vedan Dialect few know Tamil script.

The malakkuravan who also refer to themselves as the malaikkuravan, are found in kanniyakumari district neigh bouring populations idntify them as a local tribal community. The local people also address them as the malakuravar or the marudamparai colony makkal for easy identification. The community elders believe that they migrated from the north travanvore region during the pandya rule. The malakuravan speak malayalam among themselves and tamil with others. Their dialect is locally known as kuravan malayalam. A few of them know the tamil script.

The Malasar are identified as a small tribal community who live only in the Pollachi taluk of the Coimbatore District. The Malasar believe that they were the orginal inhabitants of Kongu Nadu, the present Coimbatore District. The Malasar live in the foothills of the Anaimalai hills amidst non-tribal cultivators. They speak Tamil among themselves and with others. They use the Tamil script. Some of them are conversant with Kannada and Malayalam.

The origins and migration to the hills are shrouded in mystery. According to Malayali they are migrated from the scared city of Kanchipuram to the hill areas when parts of Southern India were under Muslim rule. The pr4esent distribution of the Malayali is in the hills of North Arcot, South Arcot Salem, Tiruchirappalli and Dharmapuri. The Malayali speak Tamil among themselves and with other communities. They use the Tamil scrip. Some of them are conversant with Telugu and Kannada.

The Malayekandi, originally they were one of the social group of Vellalar community. Initially they were called as Malaikkanda latter it has called as Malaye kandi. They are found in Tamil Nadu as scattered.

The Mannan is distributed in the Kanniakumari and Tirunelveli Districcts. They are also known as Vannan and Velan. Locally they are identified by their occupation, i.e. laundering clothes. They perceive their distribution at the local level. In other parts of Tamil Nadu, particularly in hilly areas, there is another community. Also called Mannan, but they are a hill tribe and have no connection with the Scheduled Caste Mannans of Kanniyakumari and Tirunelveli. A legend regarding the origin of the Mannan narrates that, once upon a time, when parameswara and his wife parvathi were amusing themselves, the latter made an earthen elephant which was accidentally trodden on parameswara. From this arose a man who stood bowing before them. He was assigned his present occupation, i.e. washing soiled clothes. Their mother tongue is Tamil, and they use the Tamil script.


The Census Report 1961 states that the Mudugar are believed to be the earliest immigrants and that they are of Tamil origin. They settled in Coimbatore, Erode, Madurai and Matheswaran peak Attapadi area. Their speech however is closer to Kannada than to Tamil. Majority of the Vocabulary items are similar to Malayalam, while influence of Kannada and Tulu are also noticeable.

The Muthuvan found in the idukki District, Kerala, and the adjoining Mathurai and Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu. This myths and remembered traditions lend credence to their belief that they originally lived in Madurai, and later migrated to the hills of kerala due to internal dissensions. The dialect spoken by them is closely related to Tamil and to Malayalam. Two dialects, the "eastern" and the "Western" have been distinguished.

The Palleyan are a Tamil speaking tribe found largely in the Palani Hill. These tribes are mostly in the hilly regions also they found in several places like Primed tashil, hashil, kumily, Vandarmed, chakkupallani Panchayats and also in several districts of other state of Kerala. The Palleyan originally belong to the Palani hills. Tamil is their mother tongue. They speak Tamil and use the Tamil Script for both inter-group and intra-group communication.

Palliyan are found in Palani hills of Dindigul district and in Western Ghats. Especially in the sensagethope and saduragiri hills, the Puliyankudi areas of Tirunelveli district and vasanadu hills and Bodinaianar in Madurai district. They are found in the hills of Coimbatore , Madurai , Ramnad and Tirunelveli district. Palliyan speak Tamil dialect.

The Palliyar are found in the hilly regions of Madurai, Dindugal,Tirunelveli and Virudhunagar districts. In Tamil Nadu they constitute relatively a small group. They speak Tamil (mother tongue of Tamil Nadu).

The paniyan are distributed in tamilnadu and the adjoining area of kerala and Karnataka. Their concentration more in kerala state.their legendary origin is at a place called lppimala and they are descender from pantirappannara (twelve ancestors) their origin nolting define is known (thurstor 1909). They mainly live in the Nilgiris District. They separate their own dialect among themselfs they separate tamil and Malayalam with others and use the tamil script.

They are aboriginal forest tribe inhabiting the Western Ghats, and are identified at the local level. The ethnographic accounts reveal that they are the progeny of Karayan or Karayya. They claim that they are karayan makkalu (children). Legendary accounts exist regarding the origin of the community. The community perceives its distribution in the Nilgiris, Periyar, Coimbatore, Salem and Dharmapuri Districts of Tamil Nadu. They live chiefly on the summits of the Geddesala- bargur hills, the Nilgiri hills and the Biligiri Rangan hills. Their settlements in Tamil nadu are contiguous to that of their Counterparts in Karnataka state. They speak their own dialect, Solaga or Soliga-Kannada or Hale kannada (old Kannada) among themselves. They speak Kannada and Tamil with others. They use the Tamil script.

35. TODA:
The Toda are a prominent tribe of the Nilgiris. The history and origin is not clear. They believe that they were created along with their buffaloes by their great Goddess Thekershi (Toksy). According to them, the Tarthar and the Teivali. There are many version with regard to the history of the Toda. One version is that they are the descendants of Ravana. Another version is that they are the surviving Pallava race who after the fall of their empire took refuge in the Nilgiris. They have their own dialect called as Toda dialect without script. Toda dialect is an Independent language of the Dravidian family affiliated to Tamil.

36. URALI:
The Uralis are found in the Sathyamangalam Taluk of the Erode District of Tamilnadu, Kerala and Karanatka. The Uralis live in the hills of Tamilnadu, Kerala and bordering areas of Karnataka. They dwell at an altitude of 1,800 feet in the jungle of Dimnhu area of Tamilnadu. They speak mixed Tamil and canaries. Their language with words frequently borrowed from Tamil or Kannada according to the language used by the non- tribal.